APPALACHIAN STUDIES TIME LINE
PRE-APPALACHIAN STUDIES CONFERENCE EVENTS AND CONTEXT
1900-1920 Coal Industry developed, builds towns and camps, imports
labor. Diverse populations. Union organizing - Mine disasters, Coal
Mine Wars - Railroads - Massive timbering and development of National
Forests - Early tourism - large resort hotels and mansions. Settlement
schools - Missionaries - Council of Mountain Workers - World War I -
Textile Strikes in Elizabethton, Tn., Gastonia and Marion, N.C. (20's
and 30's) - Prohibition and Moonshining - Radio and Hillbilly music
- Beginning of chemical industry - Scopes Monkey Trial.
1900 Mountain Workers Conferences, Maryville College, Tennessee
1902 Hindman Settlement School founded
1908 Russell Sage Foundation funded John C. Campbell to survey
the social and economic conditions of the Southern Mountains
1913 Council of Southern Mountain Workers and Southern Mountain
Workers Conference organized
1913 Pine Mountain Settlement School
1913 Horace Kephart, Our Southern Highlands
1914 Berea Colleges Mountain Collection (Weatherford-Hammond
Collection since 1964) was founded
1921 John C. Campbell, The Southern Highlander and his Homeland published
1925 Council of Southern Mountains Workers move office to Berea
1925 John C. Campbell Folk School founded
1925 Mountain Life & Work commences publication
1930's The Great Depression - New Deal, Welfare programs - CCC
camps - WPA builds schools and public buildings - Smoky Mountain National
Park - Tennessee Valley Authority - Government Surveys of Region - UMWA
organizes coal mines - Prohibition ends - Folk Revival
1930 Southern Highland Handicraft Guild organized
1932 Highlander Folk School founded
1935 U.S. Dept. of Agriculture survey: Economic and Social
Problems and Conditions of the Southern Appalachians. Helen Dingman
of Berea College encouraged the project.
1935 Everett E. Edwards. References on the Mountaineers of
the Southern Appalachians (USDA)
1937 Allen Eaton, Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands
1940's - 50's World War II - migrations to north to work in defense
plants - Manhattan Project - Oak Ridge - Lil Abner. Mechanization of
coal - beginning of strip mining and migration to urban areas. UMWA
Health and Welfare Fund - Blue Ridge Parkway - Second Home Recreation
Development - Commercial Tourism
1940 Frank Smith moves from John C. Campbell Folk School to Berea
and founds the Country Dancers
1940 James Still, River of Earth
1943 Cratis Williams teaches Appalachian Ballads and Songs course
at Appalachian State Teachers College
1948 Richard Chase, The Grandfather Tales
1950 James Browns Harvard dissertation on the Beech Creek
1950 Richard Drake teaches Appalachian history course at Berea
1951 Perley F. Ayers became president of Council of Southern
1950's Appalachian Studies for Urban Teachers, Social Service
Workers by Loyal Jones and Council of Southern Mountains
1954 Harriet Arnow, The Dollmaker about urban migration
1955 Wilma Dykeman, The French Broad
1956 Cratis Williams and Beulah Campbell organized workshop
on Living Folk Arts of the Southern Mountain Peoples
1956 Ford Foundation meets with President Weatherford Berea
to plan a study of the Southern Appalachian Region
1957 Tom and Pat Gish buy and begin publishing The Mountain
Eagle in Whitesburg, Ky.
1960's John F. Kennedy campaigns in West Virginia - War on Poverty
- Appalachian Volunteers and Vista workers - Community Action - Welfare
Rights - Appalachian Regional Commission - Civil Rights Movement - Mannington
Mine Disaster - Coal Mine Safety and Black Lung Movement - Strip Mining
and Anti-Strip Mining Movement - Vietnam
1961 Cratis Williams dissertation, The Southern Mountaineer
in Fact and Fiction
1961 Robert F. Munn, The Southern Appalachians: A Bibliography
and Guide to Studies
1962 The Ford Foundation report The Southern Appalachian
Region: A Survey published. Thomas Ford, University of Kentucky
and regional scholars developed the survey.
1963 Harry Caudill, Night Comes to the Cumberlands
1963 Appalachian Volunteers formed at Berea College and Eastern
1963 Council of Southern Mountains opened office in Uptown Chicago
1964 First issue of Appalachian Outlook: New Sources of Regional
Information was published
1964-5 Appalachian Regional Commission established
1965 Jack Weller, Yesterdays People
1966 Elliot Wigginton and high school students at Rabun Gap, Georgia, begin publication of Foxfire
1966 Congress for Appalachian Development formed
1968 W.L. Eury Appalachian Collection at Appalachian State University founded
1969 Appalachian Film Workshop (Appalshop) begins in Whitesburg, Kentucky
1969 Helen Lewis at Clinch Valley College and Mike Smathers at Lees College develop early Appalachian Studies classes
1969 Fontana Meeting of Council of Southern Mountains
1970's Economic Development Programs - Fast Foods - Road Building - Oil companies buy coal companies - Brookside Coal Strike - Floods (Buffalo Creek and 1977 floods) - Coal Mine Disasters and Federal Regulations of Strip Mining and Mine Safety - Council of Southern Mountains ends. Foxfire - Appalshop - Appalachian Music Festivals, Blue Grass Festivals, Hillbilly Days - Oral history projects - Community Colleges.
1970 Bill Best organizes an Appalachian Studies Conference with Council of Southern Mountains Committee at Clinch Valley College, Wise, Virginia
1970 Berea College Appalachian Center developed with Loyal Jones as Director
1970 Peoples Appalachia published in Morgantown, West Virginia
1970 Appalachian Peoples Old Timey Folk-Rock Camp Meeting Music Fair, High Knob Recreation Area, Norton, Virginia
1970 James Dickey, Deliverance, movie released in 1972
1971 Appalachian Consortium founded
1971 Appalachian March for Survival Against Unfulfilled Promises (Welfare March on Washington)
1971 Appalachian Peoples History Book, Southern Conference Education Fund
1971 Peoples Hearing on Strip Mining, Wise, Virginia
1971 James Branscomes article "Annihilating the Hillbilly"
1971 Gurney Norman, Divine Rights Trip was published as part of The Last Whole Earth Catalog, published as a separate book first in 1972
1971 Peoples Appalachian Research Collective, Morgantown, West Virginia, published Appalachias People, Problems, Alternatives, An Introductory Social Science Reader
1972 Appalachian Journal begins publication
1973 Appalachian Heritage was published by Alice Lloyd College from 1973-1982, then by Hindman, then at Berea
1973 Appalachian Notes published at Berea
1974 Appalshop begin publication of Mountain Review
1976 Cratis Williams Symposium in Boone, North Carolina
1976 Charlotte Ross published Bibliography of Southern Appalachia
APPALACHIAN STUDIES CONFERENCE ORGANIZED
1977 "A Guide to Appalachian Studies" published by Appalachian Journal
1977 Laurel Shackelford and Bill Weinberg, Our Appalachia: An Oral History, Alice Lloyd College Oral History Archive.
1977 University of Kentucky Appalachian Center developed with Doug Arnett as Acting Director
1977 Founding Meeting of Appalachian Studies Conference convened by Richard Drake at Berea
1977 Gurney Norman, Kinfolks, The Wilgus Stories
1978 1st Appalachian Studies Conference held at Berea. Convener: Stephen Fisher
Address by Bob Scott, Federal Co-Chairman, Appalachian Regional Commission
Theme: Where Do We Go From Here? John Gaventa, Archie Green and Jim Wayne Miller speak on Which Side Are We On? Opening the debate between the Activists and the Academic Scholars
1978 Center for Appalachian Studies developed at Appalachian State University, Patricia Beaver, Director
1978 Helen Lewis, Linda Johnson and Don Askins, Colonialism in Modern America, The Appalachian Case
1978 Appalachian Consortium acted as office base for Appalachian Studies Conference and co-sponsored the conference
1978 Henry Shapiro, Appalachia on our Mind: the Southern Mountains and Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870-1920
1978 Archives of Appalachia founded at ETSU, Richard M. Kesner, Director
1979 2nd Conference - Jacksons Mill State 4-H Camp, West Virginia. Sharon Lord, Chairperson
Theme: Land Use - Leaving the Land and the Land Ownership Study featured. Gordon Ebersole spoke on Dams, Kilowatts and the Corps. Mike Kline sang songs about the land.
1979 1st Appalachian Writers Workshop at Hindman
1979 David Whisnant publishes Modernizing the Mountaineer
1980's Land Ownership Study - KFTC and Broadform Deed battle - New River Dam Controversy - Coal Strikes: A.T. Massey and Pittston - Mine Closures - U.S. Steel leaves Lynch, Kentucky and Gary, West Virginia - Fast Foods and Strip Malls - Big Road Corridors
1980 3rd Conference - Johnson City, Tennessee. Joan Moser, Chair. Theme: Appalachia America. More than 300 persons attended. Reception at Down Home Picking Parlor honoring Jim Wayne Miller and book publication: The Mountains Have Come Closer. Myles Horton and Helen Lewis present paper on The Roles of Transnational Corporations. Robert Higgs read Sut Lovingood: Appalachian Super Star
1980 Appalachia/America, the first published proceedings of the Appalachian Studies Conference (3rd conference)
1980 Appalachian Land Ownership Study completed
1980 John Gaventa, Power and Powerlessness
1980 Appalachian Writers Association formed
1980 First Appalachian Studies Proceedings published
1981 4th Conference - Blue Ridge Assembly, Black Mountain,
North Carolina. John Stephenson, Chairperson. Appalshop reception announcing
film history of Appalachia. Sidney Farr read Appalachian Women in Literature.
Film: Coal Mining Women
1982 Ron Eller, Miners, Millhands and Mountaineers
1982 "Assessing Appalachian Studies" published by Appalachian Journal
1982 5th Conference - Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia. Pat Beaver, Chairperson. Keynote speaker: Sue Thrasher on Highlander Center. Harry Caudill and the Burden of Mountain Liberalism. Citizens for the Preservation of Floyd County made presentation.
1983 6th Conference - Pipestem Resort State Park, West Virginia. Jim Wayne Miller, Chairperson. Keynote speaker: Don West, Appalachian South Folklife Center. Music by Jane Sapp, Etta Baker, Sparky Rucker and Reel World String Band. John Inscoe paper on Mountain Masters and Grassroots Poetry Project by Gurney Norman and George Ella Lyons.
1984 Center for Appalachian Studies & Services founded at ETSU, Richard Blaustein, Director
1984 7th Conference - Unicoi State Park, Georgia. Charlotte Ross, Chairperson. Welcome by Lt. Governor Zell Miller. Music by the Eller Brothers. Carl Ross paper on 20th Century Politics in North Georgia.
1984 Now and Then magazine published by ETSU-CASS
1985 8th Conference - Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. Richard Drake, Chairperson. Keynote by Loyal Jones: A Tribute to Cratis Williams. Bill Best and Jim Wayne Miller present Dick and Jane Revisited. Discussion of David Whisnants All That is Native and Fine. Mary Beth Pudup paper: Beyond the "Traditional" Mountain Subculture.
1985 William Turner and Edward Cabbell, Blacks in Appalachia
1986 9th Conference - Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina. Chairperson Ron Eller spoke on "The Search for Community in Appalachia." Music by Clint Howard Band and the Frank Proffitt family. Steve Fisher paper on The Nicaraguan Revolution. Appalachian Film and Drama panel: Jerry Williamson, Sharon McCrumb, Jean Speer and Gerald Wood
1986 Appalachian Studies Conference becomes Appalachian Studies Association
1986 Patricia Beaver, Rural Community in the Appalachian South
1987 10th Conference - East Tennessee State University celebrating a decade of Appalachian Studies. Music by ETSU bluegrass band. Poetry by Bettie Sellers, Rita Quillen and Don Johnson. Howard Dorgan and Marshall Family program on Old Regular Baptists. Sandra Ballard presents interview with Harriet Arnow.
1987 Denise Giardina, Storming Heaven
1987 Howard Dorgan, Giving Glory to God in Appalachia
1987 Rodger Cunningham, Apples on the Flood: The Southern Mountain Experience
1987 Mountain Heritage Center at Western Carolina holds first Ulster-American Heritage Symposium
1988 11th Conference - Radford University, Virginia. President Grace Edwards and Keynote speaker, Marilou Awiakta. First year of the Appalachian Youth Conference. Presentations by AppalKids of Pulaski High School. Joan Moser paper on Appalachian Folk Medicine and Mary Anglin paper on The Rise and Fall of Mica. Gospel singing.
1988 Susan Keefe, Appalachian Mental Health
1989 Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association begins publication
1989 12th Conference - West Virginia University. President Loyal Jones and Keynote speaker Jim Comstock, editor of West Virginia Hillbilly (newspaper). Paper by Kate Black on Roving Pickets. Andrena Belcher storyteller and film Powerhouse for God by Jeff Titon.
1990's Mountain Top Removal - Hispanic Immigration to Region - Mine Closures - Globalization - Industries Moving to Mexico and other Developing Countries. Population Decline.
1990 13th Conference - Unicoi State Park, Georgia. Doyle Bickers, President. Keynote by Eliot Wigginton, The Foxfire Experience. Music by the Foxfire Boys and Norman and Nancy Blake. Papers by John Hennen, Sandra Ballard, Clyde McCoy and Benita Howell.
1991 14th Conference - Berea College. President Wilburn Hayden and Keynote speaker Wilma Dykeman. Discussion of David Fischers Albions Seed. Appalshop film, Gurney Normans story Fat Monroe. Paper: Dont Let it Acid Rain on our Appalachian Parade.
1992 15th Conference - Asheville, North Carolina. President Roberta Herrin. Keynote speaker David Whisnant. Sally Maggard paper Will the Real Daisy Mae Please Stand Up. Jewel Ridge Theater Group. Jean Speer, From Stereotype to Regional Hype.
1992 ASA office management taken over by ETSU - Center for Appalachian Studies
1993 Steve Fisher, Fighting Back in Appalachia
1993 16th Conference - Johnson City, Tennessee. President Rebecca Hancock. First Annual Cratis D. Williams Service Award and Sixth Annual Youth Conference. Keynote by Noah Adams. Howard Dorgan paper on The No-Heller Baptists. ETSU Bluegrass Band.
1993 First Ohio Appalachian Conference
1994 Appalachian Studies Association granted 501c3 status retroactive to 1977. Organization office moved to West Virginia University linked to Regional Research Institute.
1994 17th Conference - Virginia Tech. Theme: Appalachia and the Politics of Culture. Alice Brown, President and Keynote speaker: Archie Green. Discussion of The Kentucky Cycle. Talk by Congressman Rick Boucher. Papers on gender roles and the Celtic Connection.
1994 Loyal Jones, Appalachian Values
1995 18th Conference - West Virginia University. President Ron Lewis and Welcome by Jesse White, Appalachian Regional Commission. Herby Smith. Appalshop film: Beyond Measure. Papers on womens health care, tobacco economy and visit to Arthurdale. Keynote by Denise Giardina and music by Carl Rutherford, Kate Long and Melvin Wine. The last Youth Conference .
1995 First issue of ASAs Journal of Appalachian Studies published
1995 Jerry Williamson, Hillbillyland: What the Movies Did to the Mountains and What the Mountains Did to the Movies
1996 19th Conference - Unicoi State Park, Helen, Georgia. President John Inscoe - Keynote by Helen Lewis and George Reynolds - Foxfire Tour. Discussion Deborah McCauleys Appalachian Mountain Religion.
1996 Jim Wayne Miller died, August
1996 Wilma Dunaway, The First American Frontier: Transition to Capitalism in Southern Appalachia, 1700-1860
1997 20th Conference - Ft. Mitchell, Kentucky. Co-sponsored by Urban Appalachian Council, Cincinnati, Ohio. Dwight Billings, President. Jean Ritchie concert in Ohio. Honoring James S. Brown. Affrilachian poets. Emphasis on urban history and migration.
1998 21st Conference - Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina. President, Howard Dorgan and Keynote, Lee Smith. Over 500 in attendance. Ron Rash read poetry From Mountain to Mill. First Silent Auction.
1998 Marshall University establishes Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Gender in Appalachia.
1998 Appalachian Studies Association Website Committee was established.
1999 22nd Conference - Southwest Virginia Center for Higher Education, Abingdon, Virginia. President Steve Fisher. Keynote speaker Jo Carson. Concert by Hazel Dickens. Attendance tops 700. Papers on Women, Place and Social Justice. Big Creek People in Action and other community groups participate.
2000 23rd Conference - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. President Jim Lloyd. Theme: Regional Stewardship for the Millennium. Laurel Theater Music. Visit to Highlander Center. Papers on Oak Ridge and Collaborative and Participatory Research.
2001 24th Conference - Snowshoe, West Virginia Ski Resort. President Sally Maggard. Keynote Rachel Thompkins. Book Forum The Road to Poverty by Billings and Blee. Jesse White, ARC Federal Co-Chair. Not so Silent Auction and first T-Shirts of Appalachian Pioneers with fashion show.
2001 Appalachian Studies Association moved office to Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia
2002 25th Conference - Unicoi State Park, Helen, Georgia. Helen Lewis, President